Risk Analysis Methods (Causes/Threats)

Method Description
Cause-consequence Analysis

The Cause-Consequence Diagram is developed from a certain initiating top event, i.e. an event that initiates a specific operational sequence or an event which activates certain safety systems. The Cause-Consequence Diagram consists of two reliability analysis methods previously elaborated, the FTA and ETA methods.

Preliminary Hazard Analysis

The preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) is a semi-quantitative risk analysis methods that is used to identify potential hazards and the corresponding top events (risks). The PHA sheet identifies as well the required measures and follow-up actions to control the hazard sources. The PHA should consider hazardous components, facilities, safety-related equipment, and environmental constraints.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis

The Failure Mode and Effects Analysis is a cross-industry established method to identify and eliminate potential failures, problems, errors and risks of a system, design or process before adverse consequences reach the internal/external customers. The basic idea of the FMEA is thus the preventive risk identification and error prevention instead of a subsequent correction. 

Fault Tree Analysis

The FTA (fault tree analysis) is a scientific method for detailed fault analysis. It serves the systematic identification and documentation of possible causes for errors or misconduct. Found causes are broken down as precisely as possible to get a comprehensive fault analysis.


Checklists are a very simple way to identify risks. As a rule, checklists consist of standardized questionnaires that help to systematically record risks. They can contain open or closed questions, whereby closed questions are better suited for the identification of risk potentials, since the evaluation of the answers is simpler and thus leads faster to concrete results. The questions mostly arise with creative techniques. Workshops, brainstorming, etc.